The true origin of ice ages

It cannot be doubted that the clouds revolve in independent orbits around the core, kept aloft not by heat of the core, but by centrifugal force generated by their tremendous velocities. Because of similar determinable characteristics the same con-elusion can be reached with certainty in the case of Saturn and is suggested as to Uranus and Neptune.

We know that the clouds are composed of different minerals. They even have different colors. Although spectroscopic determination is limited because the clouds are not self-luminous, astronomers believe that they have identified water and ammonia in them. It certainly seems logical to assume that they also contain other mineral compounds and elements found on Earth. Because of their visible turbulence and variant rotational periods, we know that their components necessarily must be gaseous, liquified and/or solidified discrete particles. In the case of Venus, the enshrouding envelope is not striated. It is so uniformly homogeneous and colorless that even the period of its rotation cannot be definitely determined. Notwithstanding some conjectures to the contrary, it seems reasonable to suspect that the clouds of Venus may be predominantly aqueous. In another respect, as we shall see, the envelope of Venus possesses implications which differ from those of the four superior planets mentioned.

Three Basic Assumptions

Suggested and supported by the foregoing visible conditions which exist on four of the superior planets, a logical theory of how Earth evolved comes clearly to mind. The theory is based upon three assumptions.

(1) The first assumption is that far, far back in its early formative past, the Earth had evolved to a stage where it consisted of a dense, but molten, intensely hot inner core, surrounded by an envelope of matter not yet incorporated therein; that the surrounding envelope consisted of gasses, volatilized, liquified and/or solidified, separated particles of mineral and metallic elements and compounds; that these materials had been previously formed in the crucibles of intense formative heat by nuclear, atomic and molecular fusion and chemical reactions; that they had been driven far aloft and were prevented from gravitating to the core by the repellent force of the intense heat. For want of a better term we will call this unincorporated envelope of matter the primordial atmosphere.

For our present purpose we need not go back to the much earlier period in Earth’s past when, as would seem logical, all terrestrial matter most probably was incandescent and completely gaseous, as is now obviously the case with the sun; nor is it for us here to try to solve what is probably an unsolvable riddle, to wit: how and from what kind, form and shape of original substance the solar system originated. We will begin our speculations at a much later stage of evolution, the time after contraction had progressed until a more or less solid nucleous had formed—a nucleous or core still intensely hot and suiTOunded, as said, by an atmospheric envelope of unincorporated mineral matter.

The foregoing and first of our assumptions constitutes the very foundation of the theory hereinafter to be expounded. If the assumption can be proven false, the whole theory collapses. The author does not believe the assumption does violence to generally accepted, current beliefs. That not only the Earth, but all planets, were once incandescent and molten is firmly supported by logic and by so much corroborative evidence that it seems scarcely possible seriously to question the truth of such an assumption; and almost nobody ever has questioned it. Although we may not comprehend the true cause of the heat, we recognize the logic and the evidence of its former existence.

Granting that the Earth was once igneous, it must follow that all of the water as well as most, if not all, of the volatile and less refractory mineral and metallic elements and chemical compounds in the present crust must have been at one time vaporized and therefore expelled and repelled from the core by the energy of intense heat and, consequently, suspended in space above. As and when the igneous core lost heat, the suspended vapors must have condensed into solids or liquids, according to their natures, and at some stage of Earth’s evolution must have constituted a primordial atmosphere such as envisioned in the above assumption.

(2) The second assumption is that the entire mass of terrestrial material, including both the core and all matter not yet incorporated therein, was rotating. Why, we do not know; but every body in the solar system and probably every celestial body throughout the universe is rotating. Therefore, it surely is not illogical to assume that Earth’s primordial atmosphere also rotated.

(3) The third assumption is that at least a considerable part of the primordial atmosphere either possessed originally or had acquired, before the igneous core cooled down, sufficient rotational velocity so that its centrifugal force balanced or exceeded gravitational attraction and therefore could not and did not descend to the core immediately after heat had ceased to repel it. Whether a unit of this moving matter were a molecule of water or a massive boulder, it possessed just so much kinetic energy, which necessarily had to be reduced and counteracted by forces of gravity working against it before it could descend. Therefore, deceleration and declination must have been slow, requiring probably the lapse of eons.

Planets Support Assumptions

To support the third assumption we have amazingly convincing, and plainly visible testimony. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, albeit they have unquestionably long since lost all or most of their earlier inherent heat, are still surrounded and obscured by envelopes of vaporized, liquified and/or solidified discrete particles of mineral compounds and elements not yet incorporated in their cores. It certainly is logical to believe that the mineral matter in these envelopes has never been a part of the solid cores of the planets. The atmospheres continue to revolve around the cores due to momentum which gravity only can overcome. That deceleration is occurring very slowly is clearly evident; but that the materials under universal law must descend in due time is indisputable.