Since the crystal was the key to better radio reception, experimenters were searching the mineral kingdom for new and more sensitive detector crystals. Early radio magazines taught the eager hobbyist how to mount special radiosensitive mineral crystals. There were several favorites of which radio hobbyists were very fond. A brilliantly reflective metallic crystal having a silvery blue cast, Galena was the mineral of choice. Pyrite, otherwise known as “fool’s gold”, is a close second to Galena. As a radio detector, Pyrite gives a good signal strength in the headphones. Some preferred Molybdenite, a mineral that is especially sensitive to infrared energy as well as radiosignals. Radio amateurs were always trying new mineral crystals to see which ones amplified radio stations with greater strength and clarity. Each had their favorite crystals. Little did the radio enthusiasts know why there was mystery in this quest for “radiant crystals”!
Advancing the science of crystal radio detection, certain researchers discovered that contact-combinations of minerals gave stronger signal amplifications. When carborundum and silicon crystal nuggets were pressed together with little springs in a metal tube, the signal strength was enormous. Small battery voltages turned these mineral detectors into amplifiers, early transistor-like detectors. Bi-mineral and bi-metallic hybrids were tried with good results. Mineral-metal, mineral-mineral, even multiple minerals in contact with two different metals produced enormous magnifications of signal strength.
Some detectors incorporated carnotite, a radioactive mineral. This greatly increased conductivity with a resultant enormous signal magnification. Coating aerial points and catwhiskers with autonite, another mild radioactive mineral, produced amplified signals. There were small companies, which manufactured synthetic minerals (“Radiocite” and “Russonite”). These claimed superiority in the signal-boosting ability. There were scores of other sensitive minerals, which gradually appeared in the journals, some natural and rare, and some synthetic compositions.
In light of these wonders, a full-scale assault on the mineral kingdom was launched by both private and government research labs. It was discovered again that the mineral world is not simple. The mineral world is mysterious and locale-specific. Each ground site where minerals are found evidences unique mineral combinations and admixtures. The special qualities of identical mineral species can vary completely among geographic points.
Galena contains critical element traces, which differ completely among mining sites. It was found that Galena, taken from certain special sites in Kansas, gave an excessively clear signal output with high volume. This natural Germanium rich variation placed it far above other galena samples in radio-sensitivity. In addition, these crystals visibly differ from Galena taken from other places, having a rare blue green hue.
Crystal sets were the ruling radio technology in the early 1900’s. Listening to radio stations through a crystal set is still a treat! The sounds are startling clear … and loud. An old neighbor told how his great-uncle so tuned the crystal set that “everyone in the house could hear the music”. Most crystal radio sets are “unpowered” radios. The entire study field of unpowered radios has been receiving enough attention lately for the publication of several books on the subject.
The anomalous strength of crystal radio signals has much to do with design, conductivity, crystal quality, aerial surface, and ground contact. In many cases, the aerial may be completely eradicated when the ground connection is “right”. In fact, the aerial can be eradicated, but not the ground. It is the ground connection, which is all-important.
Amateurs are rediscovering that specific ground points emanate radio signals in sufficient quantities to power loudspeakers! Recent reports from three independent researchers reveal that crystal radio reception through ground connection alone is shockingly powerful. The developed radio power in these crystal radio receivers was so strong that volume controls were installed to limit the output sound!
According to each report, crystal received radio signals actually seemed to “grow in strength” with time. The anomalous growth is one, which numerous researchers have noted. The pattern follows the “vegetative growth” which Reichenbach observed in his “Odic” energy and which Stubblefield saw in his “electrical earth waves”. Vegetative growth patterns appear as a gradually increasing signal, reaching frightening volumes at the maximum. In one such instance, the weak signal strength required headphones. Within several days however, the headphones had to be replaced with a small loudspeaker. This loudspeaker was then replaced by a much larger diameter horn. Finally, the horn had to be disconnected periodically because neighbors complained of the “outrageous booming sound”. Vegetative signal growth. Not an electrical characteristic.
One may view the crystal radio receiver as a tuner of crystal ad, the radio signals and other electrical values merely appearing as epiphenomena (Meinke). Recall that Reichenbach hoped to use Od in a new non-electrical technology, and that later pioneers developed Radionic instruments to these ends. The engineering convention of the early Twentieth Century had not yet realized the active appearance of these more fundamental energies in their circuits, as did their predecessors in the telegraph industry.
The idea of obtaining and using “ground energy” is covered in secrecy. What would happen to fossil fuel companies were it even suspected that vast electrical energy could be simply pulled from the ground at specific points? These energies began “making their appearance” during the years of telegraphy. Well placed telegraphic ground plates were able to operate with energy simply taken from the ground. Several early telegraph lines historically continued signaling among stations, though their batteries had been “dry and dead” for several years! I spoke to an engineer who saw this kind of system operation when yet a teenager. Seeing this strange system in full working order so impressed him that, developing that rare taste, he forever sought such anomalies as a lifelong passion. Numerous articles from the last century retell exact details concerning these phenomena.
It is possible to demonstrate its principle with ground rods and galvanometers. Yes, there is great energy in the earth, vast natural energy that is accessible only in specific points. But the true and fundamental identity of that energy has been questioned. Most qualified investigators observe that ground energy does not “begin” as electricity. Electricity from the ground only appears after several natural stages of transformation. Vegetative growth. This is evidenced in old telegraph lines where measured currents do not provide adequate wattage for the activities, which are thereafter observed in the components. This was especially true for the forgotten chemical telegraph systems, where scarcely any electrical current managed the successful exchange of strong signals.
- ULTRA MICROSCOPES & CURE RAYS: Dr. R. Raymond Rife
- ELECTRIC FLYING MACHINES: Thomas Townsend Brown