Basic Principles of some Early Pioneers

Dr. George Crile

The Phenomena of Life – A Radio-Electric Interpretation Introduction

“Oxidation produces radiation energy. Radiant energy generates electric currents in protoplasm. Electricity is the energy that governs the activity of protoplasm. The normal and pathological phenomena of life are manifestations of protoplasm. Therefore the phenomena of life must be due to radiant and electrical energy.”


After numerous experiments … “it became evident that death of an animal was associated with loss of the acid-alkali balance within the cells of the organism.

“What could be the fundamental relation between the relative acidity of the nucleus and the relative alkalinity of the cytoplasm?

“An acid colloid and an alkaline colloid separated by a semi-permeable membrane, a dielectric membrane, constitutes a concentration cell, within which an electrical potential exists between the positive and the negative poles.

“According to this conception the cells of the organism are electric cells in which the comparatively acid nucleus constitutes the positive pole and the comparatively alkaline cytoplasm the negative pole.

“On this basis, therefore, we began to consider the organism as a bi-polar mechanism and to direct our researches into the field of bio-physics.

“According to our systologic findings, the maintenance of the acid/alkaline balance between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cells — the electric potential — is essential to life and furnishes the immediate driving energy of the living process itself. Its reduction to zero or equilibrium is death.

“It remained, however, to discover how this vital electric potential of the cells is maintained. We assumed that the electric potential is mainly due to oxidation and that, in turn, the electric potential within the cell governs oxidation.

“Proteins hold active nitrogen in bonds from which it is released by electric forces thus producing the radiations which we postulate are the primary source of living energy.

“The mechanism by which oxidation within the protoplasm of the cell generates the electric charges that operate the cell and the organism we postulate is due to the short wave radiations generated and emitted by oxidation within the protoplasm. According to this conception this short wave radiation knocks off electrons. These moving electrons charge up the intricate network of the nervous system as well as the infinitely thin membranes that separate the various units of structure and the network within the cells.

“The unit of structure and of function of the living organism is the cell. The nucleus of the cell is comparatively alkaline. The nucleus and the cytoplasm are separated by a semi-permeable membrane.

“Therefore the cell is a bi-polar mechanism or an electrical battery, the nucleus being the positive element, and the cytoplasm the negative element.

“The rate of oxidation in the nucleus is greater than the rate of oxidation in the cytoplasm, and therefore an electric tension increases in the nucleus; the electricity passes through the nuclear membrane; the electrical potential in the nucleus falls and in consequence the current is interrupted.

“There are two lines of evidence which indicate that the structure and function of cells are both dependent upon the maintenance of the normal electric potential.” These are then given.


Having dealt with four outstanding thinkers, I paused. Professor Tromp was next on my list, and feeling that his work is virtually unknown to many, a whole chapter devoted to him would not, I thought, lie out of place. The breadth of his researches was phenomenal and he deserves more recognition by contemporary practitioners than he has so far been given.