At this time, Tesla unfortunately attracted the monopolistic dreams of one J. P. Morgan. The contact, established through Morgan’s associates, was one which had more the atmosphere of a threat. Politely refused by the young Tesla on several occasions, the continual visits by Morgan associates became something of a humorous charade. Tesla had observed the results of yielding to these forays, while working with Thomas Edison in New Jersey. Morgan, who worked his way into the Edison Company, eventually became the primary stockholder. Enunciating his impossible demands on Edison, the aged inventor was reduced to an callous and embittered shell. Tesla, who kept politely refusing Morgan, was finally threatened. Powerline technology had been monopolized by Morgan who, on the strength of this monopoly, strongly suggested that Tesla might not be able to export his Polyphase Power to any consumers. Without Morgan-owned powerlines there would be no Tesla-Westinghouse Company. Tesla informed Morgan that means had already be found to eliminate the need for powerlines, a statement which appeared the very height of desperation. Morgan believed he had sufficiently leaned on Tesla to acquire his company. But these attempts to force Tesla to yield failed. Tesla proved more indomitable than even the imposing Morgan and, when the silence was broken, Tesla demonstrated before Morgan associates a new means for transmitting high frequency alternations through both the ground and the air in absence of powerlines. Morgan was literally thunderstruck by this premise, and sought opportunities against Tesla at every turn.
Students are taught that Tesla developed non-rotating high frequency generators, systems employing sparks and capacitors. The name of Tesla is inexorably and tragically equated only with alternating currents. It is in this essential error that academes, engineers, young students, and avid experimenters have too long remained. Though engineers still erroneously equate Tesla only with high frequency alternating current, a recent and prolific experimenter has proven all these suppositions to be fraudulent. While Tesla was in fact the first to discover the high frequency alternating current realm, there was a more important discovery which is rarely outlined. The truth of this second great discovery remains unrecognized and unappreciated.
But what was the critical event which few recognize, and which fewer still have the patience to extract from Tesla literature? When did this event occur, and how does Tesla address the finding? Except for the consummate achievements of engineer Eric Dollard, undoubtedly the most brilliant expositor of Teslian Technology in the world today, we too would have believed the error. What Mr. Dollard has successfully demonstrated is the absolute separation between Tesla’s Polyphase period and the Impulse Technology which explains his fifty years of experiments conducted until his passing. Mr. Dollard experimentally vindicated most of Tesla’s basic and seemingly outlandish claims. In a series of experimental demonstrations, exact reproductions of Tesla systems, Mr. Dollard shows us evidence that post-Polyphase Teslian Technology relied entirely upon a strange and special electroradiant phenomenon. But how did Tesla arrive at this new and revolutionary development, and how do engineers perceive this phase of his work?
James Clark-Maxwell predicted the possibility that electromagnetic waves might exist. In theoretical discussions designed to more thoroughly explain his mathematical descriptions, Maxwell asked his readers to consider two different kinds of electrical disturbance possibly existing in Nature. The first consideration dealt with longitudinal electric waves, a phenomenon which required alternating concentrations of electrostatic field lines. This densified and rarefied pulsation of electrostatic fields necessarily demanded a unidirectional field, one whose vector was fixed in a singular direction. The only variable permitted in generating longitudinal waves was the concentration of he field. Subsequent propagation along the electrostatic field lines would produce pulsating thrusts on charges, pulsations moving in a single direction. These “electrical soundwaves” were rejected by Maxwell, who concluded that such a condition was impossible to achieve.
His second consideration dealt with the existence of transverse electromagnetic waves. These required the rapid alternation of electrical fields along a fixed axis. Space spreading electrical lines would supposedly “bend to and fro” under their own momentum, while radiating away at the speed of light from the alternating source. Corresponding forces, exact duplicates of the alternations produced at the source, would be detected at great distances. He encouraged that experimenters seek this waveform, suggesting possible means for achieving the objective. And so the quest to find electromagnetic waves began.
In 1887, Heinrich Hertz announced that he had discovered electromagnetic waves, an achievement at that time of no small import. In 1889, Nikola Tesla attempted the reproduction of these Hertzian experiments. Conducted with absolute exactness in his elegant South Fifth Avenue Laboratory, Tesla found himself incapable of producing the reported effects. No means however applied would produce the effects which Hertz claimed. Tesla began experimenting with abrupt and powerful electric discharges, using oil filled mica capacitors charged to very high potentials. He found it possible to explode thin wires with these abrupt discharges. Dimly perceiving something of importance in this experimental series, Tesla abandoned this experimental series, all the while pondering the mystery and suspecting that Hertz had somehow mistakenly associated electrostatic inductions or electrified Shockwaves in air for true electromagnetic waves. In fact, Tesla visited Hertz and personally proved these refined observations to Hertz who, being convinced that Tesla was correct, was about to withdraw his thesis. Hertz was truly disappointed, and Tesla greatly regretted having to go to such lengths with an esteemed academician in order to prove a point.
But while endeavoring toward his own means for identifying electrical waves, Tesla was blessed with an accidental observation which forever changed the course of his experimental investigations. Indeed, it was an accident which forever changed the course of his life and destiny. In his own attempts to achieve where he felt Hertz had failed, Tesla developed a powerful method by which he hoped to generate and detect real electromagnetic waves. Part of this apparatus required the implementation of a very powerful capacitor bank. This capacitor “battery” was charged to very high voltages, and subsequently discharged through short copper bus-bars. The explosive bursts thus obtained produced several coincident phenomena which deeply impressed Tesla, far exceeding the power of any electrical display he had ever seen. These proved to hold an essential secret which he was determined to uncover.
- PROLOGUE — Symbols and Models
- CHAPTER 2