Tesla made a most startling discovery the same year, when placing a long single-turn copper helix near his magnetic disrupter. The coil, some two feet in length, did not behave as did solid copper pipes and other objects. The thin-walled coil became ensheathed in an envelope of white sparks. Undulating from the crown of this coil were very long and fluidic silvery white streamers, soft discharges which appeared to have been considerably raised in voltage. These effects were greatly intensified when the helical coil was placed within the disrupter wire circle. Inside this “shockzone”, the helical coil was surrounded in a blast which hugged into its surface, and rode up the coil to its open end. It seemed as though the Shockwave actually pulled away from surrounding space to cling to the coil surface, a strange attractive preference. The shockwave flowed over the coil at right angles to the windings, an unbelievable effect. The sheer length of discharges leaping from the helix crown was incomprehensible. With the disrupter discharge jumping 1 inch in its magnetic housing, the white Qimmering discharges rose from the helix to a measured length of over two feet. This discharge equalled the very length of the coil itself! It was an unexpected and unheard transformation.
Here was an action more nearly “electrostatic” in nature, although he knew that academes would not comprehend this term when used in this situation. Electrostatic energy did not fluctuate as did his Shockwaves. The explosive shockwave had characteristics unlike any other electrical machine in existence. Yet Tesla stated that the shockwave, during the brief instant in which it made its explosive appearance, more nearly resembled an electrostatic field than any other known electrical manifestation. Just as in electrostatic friction machines, where current and magnetism are negligible, a very energetic field component fills space in radiating lines. This “dielectric” field normally launches through space in a slow growth as charges are gathered. Here was a case where a DC generator provided the high voltage. This voltage charged an insulated hoop of copper, growing to its maximum value. If all values in the circuit were properly balanced, in the manner prescribed by Tesla, a sudden charge collapse would then occur. This collapse was necessarily very much shorter than the interval required to charge the hoop. The collapse comes when the magnetic disrupter extinguishes the arc. If the circuit is properly structured, no backrush alternations ever occur.
This unidirectional succession of charge-discharge impulses causes a very strange field to expand outward, one which vaguely resembles a “stuttering” or “staccato” electrostatic field. But these terms did not satisfactorily describe the conditions actually measured around the apparatus, a powerful radiant effect exceeding all expectable electrostatic values. Actual calculation of these discharge ratios proved impossible. Implementing the standard magneto-inductive transformer rule, Tesla was unable to account for the enormous voltage multiplication effect. Conventional relationships failing, Tesla hypothesized that the effect was due entirely to radiant transformation rules, obviously requiring empirical determination. Subsequent measurements of discharge lengths and helix attributes provided the necessary new mathematical relationship.
He had discovered a new induction law, one where radiant Shockwaves actually auto-intensified when encountering segmented objects. The segmentation was the key to releasing the action. Radiant Shockwaves encountered an helix and “flashed over” the outer skin, from end to end. This shockwave did not pass through the windings of the coil at all, treating the coil surface as an aerodynamic plane. The shockwave pulse auto-intensified exactly as gas pressures continually increase when passing through Venturi tubes. A consistent increase in electrical pressure was measured along the coil surface. Indeed, Tesla stated that voltages could often be increased at an amazing 10,000 volts per inch of axial coil surface. This meant that a 24 inch coil could absorb radiant Shockwaves which initially measured 10,000 volts, with a subsequent maximum rise to 240,000 volts! Such transformations of voltage were unheard with apparatus of this volume and simplicity. Tesla further discovered that the output voltages were mathematically related to the resistance of turns in the helix. Higher resistance meant higher voltage maxima.
He began referring to his disrupter line as his special “primary”, and to the helical coil placed within the shockzone, as his special “secondary”. But he never intended anyone to equate these terms with those referring to magneto-electric transformers. This discovery was indeed completely different from magneto-induction. There was a real and measurable reason why he could make this oudandish statement. There was an attribute which completely baffled Tesla for a time. Tesla measured a zero current condition in these long copper secondary coils. He determined that the current which should have appeared was completely absent Poire voltage was rising with each inch of coil surface. Tesla constandy referred to his “electrostatic induction laws”, a principle which few comprehended. Tesla called the combined disrupter and secondary helix a “Transformer”.
Tesla Transformers are not magnetoelectric devices, they use radiant Shockwaves, and produce pure voltage without current. No university High Frequency Coil must ever be called a “Tesla Coil”, since the devices usually employed in demonstration halls are the direct result of apparatus perfected by Sir Oliver Lodge and not by Nikola Tesla. The Tesla Transformer is an impulse apparatus, and cannot be as easily constructed except by strict conformity with parameters which Tesla enunciated. Tesla Transformers produce extraordinary white impulse discharges of extreme length and pressure, which exceed the alternating violet spark displays of Lodge Coils. This is illustrated by noting the manner in which Tesla Transformers are actually constructed. While looking and seeming the same, each system actually performs very different functions. Lodge Coils are alternators. Tesla Transformers are unidirectional impulses.
The most efficient Tesla Transformations were obtained only when the disruptive radiating wire fine equalled the mass of the helical coil. The empirical determination proved that a mysterious and simple mass-to-mass correspondence necessarily existed between the disrupter apparatus and the secondary coil. Tesla learned that a simple balance beam could be used to best design his Transformers. Metal line or thick metal strapping would be cut and placed on one side of the balance. Thin copper wire would be unwound from a spool and hung on the other balance beam end. When the balance was even, when the masses were identical, Tesla cut the thin wire. Transformers made in this mass-to-raass ratio consistently provided the most powerful transformations. Each Transformer conducted a specific impulse duration with special force. Therefore each had to be “tuned” by adjusting the disrupter to that specific impulse duration. Adjustments of arc distance provided this control factor. Once each transformer was tuned to its own special response rate, impulses could flow smoothly through the system like gas flowing in a pipe.
- PROLOGUE — Symbols and Models
- CHAPTER 2