CHAPTER 2

But here they were, well employed by the only wireless company the world had to offer. What the came up with formed the basis of our present commercial radio systems, a commercial divergence from the sure principles enunciated by Tesla. Financial backing simply was heaped upon Marconi, and taken from Tesla. This simple bifurcation, amplified by the coundess labor of a great engineering consortium, produced and proliferated Wave Radio. Here indeed, the source of all modern prejudice, ignorance, limitation, restriction, disbelief, derision, error, and frustration. But for this financially empowered deviation from the normal flow of discovery, we would have not questioned discussions on a;ther and eether physics. Tesla, ignored, ridiculed, and underfunded, had no equivalent offer with which to draw away his own consortium of engineers. Though wishing the pure pursuit of superior Teslian objectives, engineers working for The Marconi Company were held fast by salaries and prestige.

Unchallenged again, Marconi thereafter advanced the Wave Radio scheme. Utilizing ineffective transverse waves to signal across space, long range Marconi communications were made with greatest difficulty. In generating the necessary wave energies required to span thousands of miles, the indomitable Marconi pushed his system into the gargantuan realm. His success was achieved with only the greatest technical effort and financial expenditures. It became obvious to all Tesla aficionada that only the exceptional continued support by Morgan could have graced this failure-bound venture with success.

No such patron ever appeared to freely grant aid to Tesla, whose Ray Transmitters far outstripped Marconi Wave Radio. Tesla threatened Marconi and the Morgan organized General Electric. In its potential for transmitting usable power as well as telephonic communications, Tesla was no longer a welcomed name in financial circles. Content therefore to occupy himself with the inferiority of an electric wave transmission mode, Marconi developed the huge stations by which he was known which required the sizable fortunes of his patron. The Marconi System became the unfortunate radio convention only because it was funded by Morgan, who desired the indirect eradication of anything Teslian.

POWER

Holding complete sway over his Wave Radio Empire, Marconi was said to have been a thoroughly demanding tyrant. Marconi was far more obsessive and domineering than the numerous emerging characterizations of Tesla. Tesla was disciplined and solitary in his ways. But he could be lighthearted, jovial, even playful at times. It was said that he enjoyed only lighthearted movies, comedies in fact. The real comedy was about to begin, with Marconi in the lead role. Endless confusions plagued Marconi engineers, who were unsure of the differences between “electric waves” and “electric rays”. Much of the terminology of that time period show a clear distinction between both, an awareness that there were in fact two very different modes of energetic radiance. One was a penetrating longitudinal ray, the one which Tesla pioneered. The other was wave radiation, the phenomenon which Hertz claimed to have discovered. Knowing the difference and how to release the same would spell either total success or total defeat for the Marconi System.

His engineers began to suspect the real difference, but did not comprehend the initial facts which they considered. Marconi radio is wave technology. Tesla Technology is IMPULSE technology. Waves were weak. Impulses were strong. Only alternating currents will release the weak waves which Marconi insisted on using. Only violent, unidirectional spark discharges will release the mysterious kinds of Radiant Energy effects which Tesla reported. There were those who remembered the European patents in which “shock-excitation” proved to produce a more penetrating and superior land of wireless signal. Largely pioneered by Germanic wireless developers, these shock-excitation methods were understood to be prolific sources of a different electrical phenomenon altogether. Raymond Heising, Count Georg von Arco, Alexander Meissner, Arno Brasch, Fritz Lange, Max Dahl, Fritz Lowenstein and a host of others recognized that Tesla had indeed found a special and rare kind of electrically stimulated effect.

They had experimental proof that this effect produced a better wireless signal than the high frequency alternating currents could ever be made to yield. Indeed, throughout the years that Dr. Nikola Tesla was treated with such derision and rejection by the local authorities, this Germanic camp came to revere and esteem his work above the others who filled the developing technology. Certain of these staunch and loyal supporters even came to his aid when, years later, his role in the development of wireless arts was held in question. Marconi engineers recognized that a severe and critical divergence was taking place, but they could really do nothing to swerve the progressive dictates of Marconi. He knew enough about their designs and intentions to spot out and eliminate those plans of theirs which even vaguely suggested Teslian methodology. Though the highly damped shock-excited discharges contained something far more potent than the currents produced through high frequency alternators, Marconi would none of it. Thus rejecting a potentially better radio energy “hybrid” on the basis of personal choice, one sourced in jealousy and spite, Marconi plunged into sinusoidal wave radio with a curious and unscientific vengeance. These seemingly “minor details” are critical in comprehending the tremendous consequences which have been passed onto society, the result of his decision.

Marconi was completely disinterested in “theoretical talk” from this time period onward. Business was the movement. Only business, and the establishment of working systems. Yet in disannulling discussions which explored the relative merit of utilizing rays or waves, Marconi had forced a shift in natural development. The rays which Tesla had discovered were so obviously the most powerful expression of natural energies now available. Pride, jealousy, envy, power, rule, domination, self-defined destiny, Marconi would force the world to accept “his radio”, even if it meant blinding the world to scientific knowledge. Only his success mattered now.

Marconi, unwilling to be aware of the real differences between waves and rays, chose the weaker mode. By doing this, he forged a path of development on the weakest possible soil. Truly expressing a part of his ego, Marconi began to speak of transmitters and the power required to overcome all natural resistance. He ultimately sought the supreme rule of all wave radio communications systems the world over. And increased transmitter power seemed his only fundamental means for solving the manifold problems posed by the use of alternating currents. Though theoreticians hypothesized that increased power and very low frequencies might help improve the Marconi system, most realized that the real problem lay exactly where Tesla said it would he: with alternating currents themselves. Power was not the problem. Energetic species were. The current which experimenters used determined the subsequent output. But the resentfully proud Marconi was making all the wrong choices.