Engineers were hired to develop pure sine wave generators, somehow imagining that the smoother the and more harmonic the signal, the better the signals would approach an environment penetrating strength. This was so much nonsense, and most of the engineers knew it. Familiar with the systems which employed abrupt, rapidly quenched spark discharges, their own experiential knowledge taught them that spark-generated signals had a penetrating power not equalled by sinewave currents however powerful or high in frequency. Here was another problem. The higher the frequency, the more efficiently the transmitted wavesignals. Yet, the higher the frequency, the less the signals would traverse the sea.
But the spark held the greatest secret. Where harmonic alternating waves lost their power, their “cutting edge”, the spark-powered aerials penetrated the natural environment with equally sharp signals. It was the eetheric component, just as Tesla stated, which effected these powerful penetrations. Engineers advised that the first stations should employ spark-generated radio energies. Marconi agreed. The absolute need of the hour was success, not style. Not just yet. Dr. Fessenden, the famed Canadian radio investigator, along with a small group of private experimenters, each independently discovered the first basic radiowave propagation laws. Each found that very low frequency waves, VLF waves, could carry signals to further distances in the natural environment than the medium frequency waves used by many amateur experimenters. The choice of frequency depended solely on finances, a remarkable restriction.
The construction of higher frequency wave radio stations was far less costly and size efficient than undertaking the establishment of a high power VLF station. Therefore, a few fortunate experimenters had designed and built their own VLF stations. Each of these was either independently wealthy, or funded by a substantial financial base. Dr. Fessenden determined that VLF alternating current waves, like low frequency sounds, actually “hugged” the ground and ocean surface as they travelled out from their large transmitters. Launched in specific directions, these VLF waves could maintain their consistency and power for long distances. It was therefor imperative to construct VLF stations at geologically appropriate locations in order to take full advantage of every possible natural enabler. Power would necessarily be extreme, the components huge. Marconi VLF stations were not experimental establishments. They were commercial ventures representing the highest sort of financial “risk” available for the production of large profits. The financial base investing the greatest capital was one for whom failures were not tolerated. The plethora of inventors threatened Marconi. There were many others whose systems performed more adequately and with far less power. They used sharp spark discharges, imitating Tesla to some vague degree.
Inadvertently duplicating work previously completed by Vion, Lemstrom, and Tesla, Marconi began learning about the affects of geomorphology on VLF. Marconi had not yet learned the secret of choosing proper “related” geological points to insure the most powerful signal transactions. It was a fact that certain geological locations exchanged radiowave signals with impossibly great power. Marconi came to rely upon such means in order to boost every fraction of power which his weak wave signalling apparatus could deliver. The goal was simple: drive signals and receive signals across the Atlantic. Using forgotten principles of Antonio Meucci, Marconi frequently employed both conductive geological structures and seawater channels in order to collimate the alternating waves. More like huge natural waveguides or “chutes”, as British engineers came to call them, spark-generated waves were directed across the seas through massive aerial structures.
Gone were the large metal plate aerials, those reminders of Tesla and his Wardenclyffe Station. In the absence of creative ability to build the necessary solid plate aerials of this size, articulated aerials began emerging. This development was principally pursued by Marconi for obvious reasons. Furthermore, Marconi found it impossible to develop sufficiently tall aerials having the great capacity needed for achieving a signal transmission “maximum”. He therefore developed his own breed of capacity structures in the horizontal mode. The Marconi Bent-L aerial curtain was comprised of several thick braided cables. He and his engineers dissected the otherwise solid geometries of early “capacitor aerials”, and produced gigantic cage-like forms. In this direction, Marconi developed “Bent-L” aerials (see figure).
This design was a parallel array of very long terminated powerlines. A great number of cables emerged from their power source, gigantic electrified components housed in an isolated building. Window-sized insulator eyelets directed the thick cables out into the expanding aerial structure. Support towers went straight out into the sea, very often standing in the water. Beneath the entire aerial structure was a buried copper screen, one whose expense was as enormous as its area. The ground screen often went beneath the seawater to several hundreds of yards beyond the aerials. These are yet being discovered off the New Jersey coastline (Dalessio). Many of these mammoth stations went into operation before the first World War. The sheer expense of creating a single VLF station is yet unfathomable for our time, let alone the VLF global “circuit” which the now vaunting Marconi sought to establish. Money and media, the old connection of rulership. Controlling what can be known is always a priority, a method of control.
Forgetfulness is sometimes expensive. There were those who, at the financial base, wished to more than forget Tesla. They wished the eradication of his Technology, and he knew it. This is why Tesla continued arranging his own press interviews. Ever prepared with carefully contrived statements, Tesla designed his interviews to pinpoint specific financiers or monopolies. Provoking his enemies with flawless logic, Tesla made the most of each moment in the spotlight. Meanwhile, Marconi engineers were immersed in problems requiring the help of a Tesla. But no such help would come.
Engineers who knew that wave radio was hopeless advised that a spark generator would be the best radio energy source for his first trans-Atlantic Station. This commercial demonstration was the most important step toward monopolizing Wave Radio. Monies would stop should this plant prove in any way inefficient. Marconi therefore believed that brute force would solve the problem of excessive static and other signal frustrating natural disruptions. It was not therefore curious that Valdemar Poulsen obtained an exclusive contract with Marconi. Poulsen had adopted certain unpatented designs of Nikola Tesla for the production of very high power VLF signals. Tesla designed the arc dischargers to produce impulses. Poulsen adapted this design to the production of VLF waves however, an inferior energetic form. The Poulsen Arc devices began as boiler-sized tanks, capable of safely transforming high voltage direct current into damped radiowaves. As Marconi stations required ever more power, so too did Poulsen develop more gigantic Arc devices. Some of these standard designs were immense house-sized tanks, hydrogen plasma cyclotrons requiring thick-walled shields to block out their dangerous local electrical fields. These mammoth installations generated multimegawatt radio currents as early as 1912. Updated considerably now, they are still in Naval use.
- CHAPTER 1
- CHAPTER 3