Those who had observed the effects of the nuclear stimulated EMP effects recognized that the essential part of the dynamic involved the sudden placement of a rapidly expanding population of extra charged particles injected directly into geomagnetic field. This densified population of extra charges represented an intense pressure focus which, in the near vacuum of the space into which they been introduced, literally exploded in all directions. The kinetic energy of this dense charge population, representing the explosive potential of a nuclear detonation, pressed outward in all directions. But it was the containing thrust exerted by the geomagnetic field which constrained all the particles from escaping altogether. After the nuclear blast had radiated all of the optical and photonic energies away, energies which are not influenced by the geomagnetic field, the particles followed. The nuclear fireball was constrained from literally spreading out at right angles to the field lines. Particles moving directly away from the earth were thrust sideways into a wide plume. Their outward escape slowed by the continual magnetic sidethrust, negative beta particles moved eastward, while positive alpha particles moved toward the west.
But the greatest mobility of particles moved along the geomagnetic lines, where very little side thrusting resisted their movement. Those particles which had slight angular movement with respect to the field simply spiralled in long helical paths. Depending upon their placement with respect to the field, the fireball was thus spread out into a wide pole-to-pole plume. Researchers who continued investigating the “radio blackout” technique realized that other means had become available to them for the possible simulation of the nuclear triggered effect Those who published works on the EMP techniques had concluded that nuclear stimulated blackouts, while effective for certain attack scenarios, remained completely impractical. In a world filled with allies and neutral nations, one could never use such a “brute force” method. Blanketing the whole hemisphere with such a communications disruption would be an act of war. Research was conducted on several related fronts.
One could not very well risk offending one’s allies, and single miss could create just such an international incident. It was here that the EMP technique took a decided turn away from nuclear detonations and toward pure electromagnetic stimulations, the central lead theme of our next chapter. In one departure from the nuclear detonation method, military developers produced small cannons whose high velocity charges were designed to fire intensely ionized Shockwaves with high directional accuracy. Such shells could destroy the electronics systems of opponents in a succession of highly directed blasts. Triggered EMP effects on land without nuclear detonations were a most “convenient” means. A few hundred of these resonant cannons could replace the dangerously radioactive nuclear warheads which would otherwise produce deadly conditions for occupation troops. The plasma shocks, emerging as miniature vortices from these cannons, were empowered by terrestrial dielectric-ity; a limitless power supply.
Perceiving nuclear weapons as powerful, instantaneous potentials capable of driving various earth processes was a new concept having radical impact on military weapons developments. Such geophysically coupled weapons systems brought researchers into a consideration of nonnuclear means for achieving the very same objectives. Despite the domination of bomb development by nuclear physicists, chemists had not ceased developing higher yield chemical explosives. It was during this time frame that chemical aerosol bombs, having high kiloton yield, were tested. Such weapons were recognized for their tactical advantage and ease of handling. There were those early nuclear hybrids termed “dirty bombs” whose intended use was the complete poisoning of an enemy territory with long-lived radioactive fallout products. Encasing a nuclear warhead in uranium-238 produced a truly “filthy” explosion. But this was not the new research avenue, where clean precision in killing was desired.
Nuclear detonations are prolific producers of a broadband of energetic spectra. These reach from very lowest electrical signals, below ULF as DC, and range well above hard gamma rays. Energetic outputs of fissile materials, and admixtures of these materials, each contained very specific orders of electric, radiant, and particulate products. It was found that appropriately prepared weapons geometries could be made to reduce blast size, while maximizing specific portions of those products. The development of nuclear hybrid systems began after sufficient data had been gathered concerning such nuclear outputs. The increased efficiency in producing very specific nuclear outputs came as a result of studies which explored basic beam-target phenomena. Applied to weapons, these otherwise profound nuclear phenomena became the knowledge on which true horror was proliferated.
So successful were each of these methods that a new regime of nuclear hybrid devices, hideously efficient killing weapons, was stimulated into production. Thus, developers founds ways to maximize the particulate or radiant outputs with precision. Weapons engineers investigated the possibility that small high-radiation emitting nuclear detonations could be far more devastating than those which simply added higher kiloton and megaton blast potentials. The first new application of these concepts successfully produced high flux neutron-emitting bombs, where blast size was minimized and particle radiation, maximized.
Why these effects were at all intriguing derives from the peaceful applications which experimenters such as Dr. Gustav Le Bon and Dr. Thomas Moray each independently pursued, applications which successfully produced selective streams of particles or radiant energies for energy and medical purposes. Dr. Le Bon produced reactions in which light metals were converted directly into particulate emissions and astheric streams. Dr. Moray produced high energy gamma rays whose mysterious therapeutic potentials were used by him in the curing of several supposed incurable illnesses. Dr. Moray also applied his selective stream emissions to force the crystallization of gold crystals from mining refuse. Specific applications of high energy particle combinations were found able to measurably raise the gold content of these refuse soils. Mining assays confirmed and documented these findings. There were other, more wonderful applications of these mysterious energies.
But military planners who needed to cover their hideous research with similar kinds of peaceful applications were not as sincere, and never as convincing. Project PLOWSHARE had been initiated under President Eisenhower to explore the peacetime uses of nuclear energy. But this investigation, a publicity relations effort to “clean up” the otherwise “dirty” atom, succeeded only in blasting large caverns in the desert and irradiating corn seeds with gamma rays. While these highly visible projects were daily reported in major newspapers and school weekly readers, the weapons devisers were deeply entrenched in the exploration of new horrors. The first neutron weapon was reported in 1961, it having been claimed that tests had been successful in these directions. Soviet sources protested the hideousness of such weaponry. It was odd that twenty years later, the very same announcement was reported under President Carter. The concept that a small yield nuclear detonator could “spare the cities and kill the enemy” was appealing to those in position to use the weaponry. Magnified neutron blasts did not produce a truly “clean” weapon. Neutron fluxes were so high from these truly small blast sites, usually a city block square, that every piece of surrounding matter became hopelessly radioactive. Neutron irradiation produced a “trace” whose signature was so deadly that the weapon, though approaching the “ideal” nuclear application, was yet not a perfect weapon for tactical occupation. Several neutron bomb explosions, and the population would indeed be destroyed; but the buildings which were left standing would be uninhabitable for centuries.
- CHAPTER 3
- CHAPTER 5