The Y-12 system utilized 9 oval (YA-12), and three linear (YB-12) shaped hard vacuum “race tracks”. The CALUTRON System combined an accelera-tive potential with enormous transportative volume, an incredible isotopic nucle-onic flux. Highly charged input nucleons were fired into the systems. Each CALUTRON was equipped with 96 separate “receivers”, targets into which the light U-235 nuclei were absorbed. Dr. Lawrence and bis team studied 71 input systems and 115 receivers. Each of the racetracks could be set into operation independent of the others. These “batch operations” could be set into action around the clock. Enriched material from any one CALUTRON could be fed back into any other, further enrichment thus being achieved. Not only capable of isotopic mass separation, redesigned forms could produce new fissile elements from existing ones. The Y-12 System could operate as an enormously powerful transmuter of elements. One could bombard target receivers with literally any kind of nucleons. Y-12 produced the fissile uranium for the Hiroshima Bomb.
By February 1945, Hanford had produced plutonium. The gold covered slugs were literally “hot” to the touch with radiative emanations. This fissile material was sent under radio contact convoy to Alamogordo to make the “test Bomb”. Now theoreticians faced an essential problem in approach. Theory was always derived from some previous knowledge. Theories were perfected “a posteriori”, after sufficient knowledge had been gathered. Theories relied on such funds of gradually acquired knowledge, from which to make statements and compose descriptions. But now there were no guidelines, no pathways. Bringing together sufficient quantities of fissile matter could be disastrous. Even manufacturing it could have had disastrous effects. Were the critical mass ever reached in one of the Y-12 units, the reaction would have destroyed the entire site in one brief flash. But how much?
Determining the “critical mass” of U-235 could not be an empirical process. An accident would wreak havoc with those whose wished use of the phenomenon on their enemies. There were those experiments, frightening accounts known as “Tickling the Dragon’s Tail”. In these extremely hazardous experiments, fissile matter was arranged in various symmetries and briefly brought together. Whether tapped together with a long screwdriver, rolled on ramps, or allowed to fall through tubes past static fissile matter, this empirical process represented the first attempt at gauging relative critical mass values for A-Bomb production. These empirical experiments were required for each of the fissile elements, U-235 and Plutonium. After countless castings and recastings, after many strangely shaped geometries of the fissile matter, the hideous device was complete. Technicians and engineers assembled and hoisted “the device”.
The oligarchy under whose sponsorship this new weapon was developed now sat in the world supreme, quite unaware of all that was to follow. For them, they owned the “Big Bomb”, terror weapon for those other Houses who may have now thought several times about either threatening them with hostility or resisting them in their imperialistic ventures. For the oligarchy, whatever nuclear side-effects there were had been ameliorated by a policy now using expendable troops and occupied populations. To fulfill the ambitions of this North American Oligarchy (NAO), all would be conscripted to service. The first test had marked the time in world history when nuclear weaponry would become the new defining power. Conventional encounters had actually become the bane of nuclear reliant superpowers. The thought of physical close encounters on the battleground were seemingly a thing of the past, a lost cause in a world where nuclear answers to international threats promised solution to the problem of hand-to-hand combat. The horrors of the previous war would be wiped away in a green-white, conscience-searing flash. Horror had been unleashed. Horror. Yet, the comforting thoughts came forth, answers to a new regime of fear. No young soldiers would have to die in a foreign conflict designed to acquire wealth for the wealthy.
Other than its larger and more effective blast size, this bomb was viewed as just another tool for war. The oligarchy now sought the use of this bomb to end the aggression which had been stimulated in the Pacific theatre. Orders which dispatched the use of this terror weapon went forth without delay. A public demonstration in the war theatre was greatly desired. No other publicity need have promoted the power of the North American Oligarchy (NAO). Japanese military was adamant. Only the suicide of their entire race would suffice in convincing the older European Powers of their resolute stand. Nothing less than this would satisfy the indomitable pride which imperialistically vaunted itself into the Pacific Theatre. The light industrial city of Hiroshima was the first directed nuclear casualty, the date was August 6, 1945. The presidential admonition that “they may expect a rain of ruin from the air” yet remained unheeded. Western minds found it inconceivable that this single Bomb could not provoke an immediate surrender from Japan. Instead, Japanese military ignored the destruction of Hiroshima.
But those who had long observed this stoic apathy, the arrogance unto death, had already made their voices best heard in circles of authority. Their voice had almost come too late in the inevitable process which led to Hiroshima. Timing in the application of force was the essential. Deploy, then wait. Deploy again, then wait again. Few believed that the Japanese military would play their arrogant pride, not a virtue, to the hilt. Perhaps they did not “hear properly” the first time? It was not an unexpected response. A few voices had earlier expressed concern that even an Atomic Bomb might not convince the Japanese Military of impending ruin. This possibility, more a probability to some military analysts, that the first Bomb drop might neither be heeded or addressed by Japanese military, that more fissile material was demanded. All of the available fissile material had been primarily directed to the Alamogordo test and the manufacture of the Hiroshima Bomb. Plutonium production was stepped up just before preparation of the “Little Boy” Bomb for many reasons. Time being of the essence, far less plutonium than U-235 would be needed to prepare a second or even a third Bomb package. But neither thermal diffusion, reactor production, nor gaseous diffusion could produce the required material on such “sudden” notice.
- CHAPTER 3
- CHAPTER 5