Arranging several magnetrons in tandem proved impractical and difficult The resultant output of these combinations was greatly enhanced by the apparent coordination of alternations set up in each single tube. This was especially evident when connective circuits were properly adjusted. The concept of joining all of the tube elements in a single vacuum envelope became a developmental path which eventually led to the great success of the RADAR project, a “multicavity” magnetron being secretly developed. A honeycomb geometry, where six adjacent cores were drilled through a thick copper disc, formed the “multicavity” space. Directly through the center of this honeycomb was drilled a central chamber, the location of an axial cathode. The entire disc was sealed, highly evacuated, and placed between the poles of a powerful permanent “horn” magnet The cathode, curiously coated with thorium and caesium, formed the axis from which powerful pulses of thermal electrons were projected toward the inner cavity walls. Constrained by this magnetic field, space charge gathered between cathode and anode with the very first application of power. These “space charge” electrons became a veritable electron cloud, rotating around its emitter cathode.
As this rotating space charge passed each face plate of the separate semicylindrical cavities, powerful clustering action occurred. This immediately set up coordinated resonations throughout the copper disc housing. Reacting back on the dense space charge, electrons began automatically clustering and cooperating with the cavity-induced oscillations. This effectively caused electron clustres to move with a specific orbit velocity around the central cathode, the “cyclotron” frequency. Cyclotron frequency and cavity oscillation were coordinated by external calibration, and SHF currents were drawn out of the device through a single wire probe. Energies of these frequencies required conductive hollow piping rather than wire lines. Waveguiding used copper piping of rectangular cross-section. Multicavity Magnetrons were powered by special highpower pulsing circuits, combinations of capacitance and inductance capable of sustaining several thousand volts of significant amperages. When so operated, SHF energy effects were deadly.
This energy, pulsed through concentrating reflectors produced megawatt SHF beacons. Such beacons produced such prodigious echoes from even the smallest metallic object, that receiving circuits could mark the relative distance of any such object with greatest accuracy. First RADAR installations used Doppler effects to compare each initial transmission pulse with subsequent echoes. The difference between these two positions on a luminous display scope could accurately range small objects though yet miles away. First tests with these revolutionary High Pulse Magnetron Systems were indeed impressive. The top secret RADAR project received the strongest encouragement and recommendation from no other than Sir Winston Churchill himself. His comment that “I have just witnessed the weapon which will win the War” stimulated the necessary inspiration which drove the small group of engineers toward the unstoppable conclusion of total success.
After that approval monies and manpower appeared, and RADAR became a matter of factory line production. The RDF (Radio Direction Finding) systems were deployed everywhere along the coastlands by 1940. Regardless of time and weather, British RAF and Naval forces were on first alert. Nazi Luftwaffe and U-Boats personnel were continually shocked to discover that, despite their stealth and strategic maneuvers, their British antagonists were perpetually prepared well in advance. In the war to end Hitler and Nazism, RADAR won the war. As far as Allied military was concerned, RADAR was now the wave tool of choice.
As improved Magnetron Tubes made their appearance, RADAR became a powerful standard tool for Allied aerial and maritime forces alike. Magnetron systems became compact miniatures, and highly portable. Attack planes all carried their RADAR packages. Military flights and seagoing missions could now take place at night with absolute safety, a surprising precision in shellfire being the principal repellant for enemy forces on all fronts of the War. As with every aspect of the developing radio technology, RADAR had now become permanent military hardware. Surprise attacks could never occur as long as RADAR was sweeping the air and sea. The infamous Pearl Harbor was actually the result of distrust or permission. The RADAR operator, whose screen literally ignited with the glowing evidence of an unprecedented incoming air assault, was repeatedly stalled while reporting his observation. Informed that his gear was probably out of order, he was ordered to recalibrate each component, until it was too late. Such questionable incidents find their solution in simple geopolitical models and answers. It is rather obvious that oligarchic forces in North America, the NAO (North American Oligarchy), wished the acquisition of resource and territory in the South Pacific; a condition which, contrary to much public opinion today, has actually been achieved. The highly industrialized and over esteemed island empire is nothing more than an offshore manufacturing facility for nationally based financiers.
Radio engineers had long known that strong and distant electrical discharges could burn out any resonantly tuned receiver. This rare occurrence was early noted when the harmonic content of certain lightning bursts were coinciden-tally received by shortwave systems. A station did not have to be “struck by lightning” in order to obtain the very same burn out effects! Even commercial power stations and their substations were often rendered useless when distant lightning stimulated certain impulse absorptions, explosively blasting components to pieces as if from an unknown source. Feeding enough electromotive force into any harmonically receptive system would suffice in destroying that system. Shortwave communications could be very easily “jammed” by loading the local continuum with static. It is curious again that these static techniques, Tesla techniques, used the explosive non-alternating impulses produced by powerful spark systems.
These systems, connected to the ground or to large overheard capacitances, absolutely overloaded all enemy transmission whenever desired. These jamming systems used both DC pulsed trains, as well as HF alternations. Sparks contained an enormous volume of harmonics. They were thus infinitely more capable of jamming every communications channel which surrounded their fundamental frequency. Jamming devices were designed to provide as broad band of disturbing static as possible. During the instances when these methods were used, Allied Forces employed the optical infrared or ultraviolet photophonic methods of Zinckler, Hartmann, Stevens, Larigaldie, Case, and Coblentz. In equally safe-security communications links, military often employed subterranean communications methods; radiosignalling methods which use conduction effects in the ground or water. In this avenue of research, VLF and ELF systems were eventually developed, supposed unreachable and unjammable radiowave channels.
- CHAPTER 4
- CHAPTER 6