With the development of very large Multi-Gigawatt Magnetron Systems, devices some six feet in diameter, new power thresholds were available for a variety of possible uses. With the new high-pulse RADAR systems came new methods which exceeded every shortwave jamming technique, but not because they produced disturbing static. Powerful pulsed RADAR beams could literally burn receiving circuitry into a useless hash. In some cases, and depending on the brevity of the applied power, high-pulse RADAR was actually able to burst radio receivers. Highly directed high-pulse RADAR energy were also found able to explode electronic systems at great distance. Reaching into enemy strongholds with all the stealth of an invisible plague, sudden highpower RADAR pulses could effectively destroy all communications equipment in a single burst This was but one of the instances in which military personnel had observed “Electric Burst”, “Electro Magnetic Pulse”, or “EMP” effects. Tesla, whose work was completely based on this electroshock phenomenon, forever mentioned the EMP effect. He cited it as the main source of a new and unrecognized natural force. Having developed means for generating, controlling, and directing the effect, Tesla utilized radiations from the EMP to drive all of his apparatus. Electric impulse was the essential feature of all Tesla devices.
RADAR technology once again became the subject of intense research, the impetus to advance the art finding ample cause in the now ongoing Cold War. Laboratory consultants were acquired from a great number of universities and industries, as military assumed a new managerial poise. High power pulsed designs were methodically produced by various laboratories who worked under military auspices. Designing powerfully efficient pulse systems required the expertise of those who studied the Tesla patents. These new systems were capacitor dischargers utilizing equally special cold cathode sparkgaps, and produced extremely powerful non-alternating discharges. In its more benign applications, RADAR provided the possibility of multichannelled military communications links across the world. But other potentials had then occurred to engineers who perceived that the power delivered through the RADAR beams were not responsible for most of the effects. With more “geophysical” perspectives, it was gradually understood that RADAR generated conditions became the site where terrestrial energies were focussing, a RADAR pulse, if suffi-ciendy potent to ionize an aerial path, would focus enough dielectric energy to constitute an ultimately powerful EMP ray.
In repeated tests, highly shielded radio equipment was completely burned by these sudden RADAR pulses. No amount of shielding could stop these explosive blasts. During wartime, such “electromotive shrapnel” could insure victory. Totally dependent on electronic communications, no enemy could withstand a multiple headed EMP assault. Those who wielded communications disruption techniques would win any future war. Indeed, those air squadrons which first move into battle theatres are the very ones equipped to jam and burn out enemy electronics systems. Fitted with large aerodynamic pods under their wings, the combined highpower RADAR pulses which they project are sufficiently powerful as to permanendy destroy all radiowave communications systems.
The Second World War had gained for the radio sciences a prodigious volume of information. The rapid deployment of virtually every kind of radio system during the War provided a test field of incredible and prolific extent, one whose resulting acquisition of data required extensive study. Phenomena in which radiowaves behaved strangely in varieties of circumstances, whether man-made or natural, formed the resource from which surprising new radio systems were subsequently devised. Just before the advent of very large RADAR installations across the polar reaches of North America, military briefly employed tremendous arrays which were made to support the requirements of VHF and UHF transmitters.
The use of higher frequencies taught the existence of several natural reflective layers in the atmosphere. The older HF relays were plagued with all kinds of inconsistencies and interference phenomena, but the implementation of higher frequencies in VHF bands gave greater reach and better signal clarity. It was known that VHF signals could be literally guided along the upper boundary layer of the tropopause, using water vapor for the scattering layer. UHF beacons reached into the ionosphere, providing gready increased efficiencies of the same. From the end of the Second World War, and well into the several decades of Cold War, the United States established a great number of “ionospheric backscatter” systems. These, placed all along specific defensive lines, incorporated sufficient VHF and UHF power to beam very long range communications signals through equally enormous distances.
Very high carrier frequencies were used to reach across the long distances represented by the required line of defense. The Air Force directed the construction of a huge combination VHF-UHF Ionospheric “backscatter” telemetry system across the Pacific just after World War II. The Pacific Scatter System, consisted of eight radio relay links, connecting Hawaii, Midway, Wake, Ponape, Guam, Palau, the Phillipines, and Okinawa. This system was built to operate at 800 Megacycles. This operating frequency nearly matched those first experimental longwave RADAR frequencies of early World War II. Made specifically to implement the ionospheric scatter technique, the system was virtually as large as an early Marconi aerial array. The scatter technique itself required the employment of very powerful beacon energies, usually provided by large Klystron beam tubes. The Pacific Backscatter System used several VHF and UHF sources amounting to some 40 Kilowatt.
In the method employed, two separate antenna bays were rigidly fixed to a vast YAGI structure. The fixed geometry directed either VHF or UHF beacon energies at a fixed specified angle from zenith. UHF permitted greater access to atmospheric and high atmospheric ionization layers. Power was directed into either the tropopause (VHF array) or the ionosphere (UHF array), where signal beams were literally bent, in some cases literally “guided” along portions of the layers, and then reflected down at a specific “scatter angle”. At the general skip distance which had been prearranged, another station could receive the incoming communications, amplify and clean the signal, and then re-beam the messages to the next skip station. Engineers estimated the efficiencies of these stations, relying entirely upon weather and ionospheric conditions for the performance of this relay system. Signals initiated at one end of the relay were automatically dispatched across the system with little delay. These were the days before communications satellites, when ground relays were the only way for sending messages across great distances.
- CHAPTER 4
- CHAPTER 6