Scattered from such high altitude regions, an incredible signal reach was achieved with UHF. Relay transmitters such as these were all necessarily large structures, requiring equally large support facilities for their operation and maintenance. Riggers were constantly braving the winds to climb onto these multiwired structures and effect repairs. In each of these large and bombastic systems, the ineffective methods of Marconi were fully realized. The vast and inefficient power requirements of these monstrosities, coupled with the unwieldy size of the UHF arrays, evidenced yet more reason that Tesla had been absolutely correct in his predictions concerning wave radio and its final consequences as a tool for serving humanity. Despite his many simple and well-experienced admonitions. Military insisted on using the lossy wave energies, spending billions to defy the natural odds and, if it were possible, force nature to work by their demands.
The Pacific Scatter System joined stations along a 7400 mile route. Itself barely practical for use in the Pacific, such extensive stations would be completely unfeasible in the Arctic; where a new defense line was necessitated against Stalinist Russia. But experiments with UHF scatter techniques were brief, the military preference moving directly into RADAR applications. After the Second World War the development of better and more powerful RADAR technology became a singular priority. Now applications technology was being harnessed to serve the military, and power refocused away from the general populace. As military took power from the oligarchy, it selectively privatized technology. In doing this, military removed power from the society from whom the technology came, and for whom the technology was originally planned. Knowledge, tools, access, and systems consolidated military power. Society waited for the “spin-offs”, a polite term for “the crumbs”. But defense was the alert requirement of the day, and military took the lead. This eventually would lead to conditions in the society which did not look upon military with favor, rather looking upon it with clear vision and recognizing an extension of the rulership, now in uniform.
On one research front, the establishment of a RADAR alert system, a veritable line of RADAR beacons, was first on the list. Because of the hardened dictatorial poise of Stalin and his predecessors, American military fully anticipated missile assaults across the polar route from the Soviet heartland. Every possible means of reconnaissance was investigated toward these objectives. This would ultimately lead to the development of novel aeronautic and space technologies. Forming the prime national defensive technology, and stretching across the North American continent in Arctic latitudes, RADAR was the best existing means for early missile warning. SHF waves were reflected from deep portions of ionospheric layers normally not accessed with ordinary shortwave or VHF systems. They therefore provide defense corps with multiple communications and early-warning surveillance capabilities.
The systems required to scan the skies for aerial nuclear assaults were quickly assembled, being large versions of Second World War RADAR technologies. Upgraded by a vast electronics consortium, installations were amassed all along the north polar borders of North America. Anticipating and alerting aerial attacks of various kinds from the Soviet Union was the arduous responsibility of a new military corps. These necessities provoked an enormous assortment of theories and systems hardware in both weaponry and communications technologies. Several such technological avenues of note are represented by various systems used in RADAR surveillance, ionospheric jamming technology, super pulse RADAR weaponry, VLF and ELF communications, EMP weaponry, special radiation bombs, hybrid nuclear beam weaponry, space reconnaissance, space communications, radiation communication links, stimulated radiation beam weaponry, and a host of yet undisclosed hardware developed for military functions.
Those who studied both Nuclear EMP and RADAR EMP recognized the inherent differences between the two techniques. In nuclear stimulated EMP, the power was enormous, and highly concentrated. But nuclear weapons were the very thing which researchers were attempting to eradicate, devices not permissible for use. The central causative agency in both was plasma formation. Plasma represented a conductive agency which had superior characteristics, almost superconductive attributes. Terrestrial dielectricity seemed to accrete into volumes of highly concentrated plasma with greater affinity than it did for metals. Nuclear EMP had the power and brevity of energy release to produce that kind of dense plasma fireball to stimulate terrestrial dielectric focussing. The earth dielectric field, vertically disposed, from ground to space, was pulled into the nuclear fireball with incredible fury. Part of the blackening of a nuclear blast area was a direct result of this dielectric focussing effect. Some believed this effect to be a film artifact, the result of burning.
The RADAR induced EMP method had inherent limitations, limitations imposed by the natural behavior of RADAR beams in atmospheric immersion. The air did not normally absorb RADAR energies enough to produce this kind of high density plasma near the ground. In order for this condition to be established, RADAR energies had to be focussed and potent. RADAR installations of this kind were large and not portable. They would have limited effectiveness in direct conflict Ground battle would be out of the question. So a ground directed EMP effect, while possible, would not be available in battle theatres unless mounted on large seagoing vessels. But another though occurred to the designers. Were it possible to direct a RADAR beam of sufficient power to a point in the sky, producing a plasma volume in a lower atmospheric pressure, then it might be possible to direct either EMP effects or blackout effects from a fixed station. The concept of producing high altitude plasma bursts derived from several factors. First, lower air pressure meant faster plasma formation under focussed RADAR energy. Second, higher aerial placement of the plasma would permit RADAR direction of the effect, far from the transmit site. Were this method perfected, one would literally have a directable EMP source.
Researchers considered the atmospheric layers available for this kind of treatment, selecting first the D-Layer which is just above the Stratosphere. Some experimenters, largely geophysicists working under government sponsorship, believed they could create special precursory EMP conditions at these lower-than-ionospheric levels with pulsed RADAR beams alone. Once it could be demonstrated that a higher than normal RADAR reflective layer could be produced in th D-Layer, these systems would be given a far greater “reach”. Angular direction of the RADAR beam would send the focussed plasma over any coastal or border threat. The high altitude aerial plasma would follow the beam focus, dragging the EMP effect along any determined route.
- CHAPTER 4
- CHAPTER 6