Tesla successfully arranged the very same conditions through the use of his high voltage electrostatic impulse system. The active capacity terminal drew in a prolific enough stream of asther to sustain the continuous white fluidic discharges seen in his numerous photographs for long time periods after the initiating power has been withdrawn. These experiments proved the ability of his system to stimulate aurora-like streamers at very much greater distances from the Arctic Circle than normally thought possible. With this apparatus he was incidentally able to produce the flame-like discharges and variable colorful flashes which characterize the auroral streams; a phenomenon successfully reproduced by no experimenters beside Eric Dollard. Although requiring far more activating equipment than that of Dr. Lemstrom, the geophysically coupled demonstration in Colorado Springs made it possible for Tesla to derive continuously powerful aurora-like energies from outer space at any location below the pole. Tesla later reconfigured his apparatus for operational effectiveness in Wardenclyffe, Long Island.
During solar peak emissions, this pole-concentrated circulating ring, the auroral electrojet, represents a current of well over 300,000 Amperes at a charging potential of 200,000 Volts. The potential power of the auroral ring current is thus some 60 Gigawatts! Awe inspiring accounts may be found throughout the literature; those instances when the aurora “descended” and wandered freely just above or even along the ground. The events where such streamers make their way to ground have always evoked the greatest sense of awe and mystery. Eskimaux legends tell that when the auroral streamers walk along the ground, people are taken from the earth. In one such case, a geophysicist saw the aurora playing among poplar tress and flimmering along the ground. He ran out into the display in order to experience the power. He felt nothing, remarking that the whole area around him was sparkling. In this fortunate case, the plasma was neutral. But this is not the only condition in which the aurora can present itself. Auroral surges have historically resulted in groundward lightning strokes, incidents which defy reason and yet persist in the accounts of highly credible witnesses throughout the literature. Reports of ” sheet lightning and luminous auroral masses” (1821), “horizontal flash of lightning followed by an aurora” (1888), “spectacular aurora followed by a violent thunderstorm” (1915), “aurora followed by intense lightning…flashes arcing through the zenith…more auroral activity after thunderstorm” (1952).
Indeed, auroral-like discharges are constantly occurring everywhere on earth, but are most prevalent from elevated peaks in the northlands. It has long been known that the ground is a prolific source of electrons, a process which Nikola Tesla studied with greatest interest. In this respect, ground charge reserves vary in time. High ground electron concentrations precede lightning strokes. When ground electron concentrations meet auroral columns, dangerous conditions are produced. The strongly biased ground proliferates a state not unlike lightning, though obviously in a more vast extent. Negative charges flow furtively up the auroral column, eventually reaching the lowest strata of the auroral body. This effectively gives the upward charges a huge capacity into which they may powerfully surge. In such cases auroral lightning has been observed, the activity of which is horrifying and awesome. But these instances are, very fortunately, rare occurrences.
Auroras do touch ground on their own with greater regularity than most imagine. Although this condition is not rare in the natural process, it is rare for human observers of its mystifying dynamics. A great many professional persons of gifted observational skills chanced to experience the rare effects of terrestrial electricity and “close auroral encounters”. Mountain climbers in all parts of the world began reporting instances of “mountain bourdonnement”, the vibration and ringing resonance of mountain rock bursting with glowing electrical currents (H. de Saussure, 1865). Others observed the explosive emergence of fireballs between mountain peaks, tall spark-like columns projecting out from mineral rich lands, ball lightning of various volumes and colors, and a veritable host of auroral displays which yet defy ordinary explanation (Corliss). A balloonist descended on a European mountain peak, some 1300 meters in height, and saw auroral rays through a thin mist, and heard a “muttering” sound (1870). Several observers told of the electrical sensation produced by a low level flickering aurora (1883). Observers in the polar areas observed arrays of “dancing streamers having prismatic colors…a swishing sound as they moved” (1901).
In New York State an aurora touched down “not thirty rods from us…a curtain of auroral light passing through the valley”, the stated height from the ground was some 30 feet (1852). In Northern Ireland, a chemist examined several solutions which had become fluorescent in a darkened laboratory, the auroral storm playing all around the building (1858). On the Yukon River, an astounded witness saw an auroral arch come “right over the water’s edge” (1906). A radio engineer in the Northwest Territory told that he, along with several others, saw an auroral curtain come down to within 4 feet of the ground, a pale green curtain through which he actually walked (1925). In Abisco Sweden, an observer reported an auroral streamer which came “below a completely cloudy sky” (1929).
There are so many of these accounts that one is literally forced into realizing that auroral process engages in a consistent ground-touching flow of its fluidic streams. Neither Reichenbach nor Tesla never equated the Aurora Borealis with electricity per se. Each recognized that the Aurora itself was a neutral asther flow, whose interactions with the terrestrial atmosphere produced electrons and positive ions, the result of successive and resistive bombardments. This is why the beautiful colorations could flow and change with every second, impossible to explain in quantitative terms. Varying electrical voltages and currents alone do not explain the sudden color changes supposedly the result of gas activations. Atmospheric gases are in an absolute state of admixture, and cannot so easily be isolated and activated by such influences to produce the magnificent and multicolored displays, that which the ancients perceived to be the beautiful responses of a quasi-living entity.
Dr. Lemstrom showed the possibility of drawing auroral energy down through passive systems. His apparatus did not produce consistent available outputs of the energy, a frustrating attribute. Dr. Tesla showed the active means by which energies which produce the auroras could be drawn from outer space at lower-than-polar latitudes. These effects have not been duplicated. However, there have been strange effects produced by shortwave transmitters which have accidentally stimulated certain auroral dynamics, effects which produced anomalous radio echoes and other such “energy storage” phenomena within the auroral envelope. Several noteworthy observers noted the “long-delay echoes” produced when north latitude shortwave transmitters were keyed. In this phenomenon, signals which were being sent out, each “returned” to their transmit site after several seconds of time. These delays could not be rationalized by those models which modelled the ionosphere as a variable altitude series of fixed shells. Three dots were sent out, the time between echoes counted. Echoes exceeding 12 seconds were repeatedly demonstrated, a path of 12 light-seconds (Hals, Stormer, van der Pol, 1928).
- CHAPTER 6
- CHAPTER 8